The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias that causes individuals to overestimate their knowledge or abilities in a particular area. This bias typically arises due to a lack of self-awareness, which hinders their ability to make accurate assessments of their skills.


Psychology Today Staff writing in Psychology Today make the following points:
  • Psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger tested participants on logic, grammar, and sense of humour.
  • Those who performed in the bottom quartile rated their skills far above average.
  • Limited knowledge in an area can lead to mistaken conclusions, regrettable errors, and the inability to realize one's incompetence.
  • Individuals can avoid the Dunning-Kruger effect by playing devil's advocate—honestly and routinely questioning their knowledge and conclusions.


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