The author suggests arithmetic's origins are biological, evolving from human and animal perception to aid navigation and tasks.
- Arithmetic is biologically rooted in our perception of the world.
- Across cultures, all numbering systems are based on addition and multiplication.
- Non-human species, like bees, exhibit algebraic-like behaviors, hinting at arithmetic's biological origins.
- Four principles (monotonicity, convexity, continuity, isomorphism) define arithmetic stemming from evolutionary perceptual organization.
- Mathematics is both a human invention and a biological discovery, highlighting a deep mind-universe link.