The Full-Range Leadership Model includes transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire styles. Effective leaders use all three styles depending on the situation and followers’ needs.


  1. The full-range leadership model is a leadership framework that includes three broad leadership styles: transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire.
  2. Transformational leadership focuses on inspiring and motivating followers to achieve their full potential, often through a shared vision and a sense of purpose.
  3. Transactional leadership is a style of leadership that focuses on achieving specific goals through a system of rewards and punishments.
  4. Laissez-faire leadership is a style of leadership where the leader is mostly hands-off and provides little direction or guidance to their followers.
  5. The full-range leadership model suggests that the most effective leaders can use all three leadership styles, depending on the situation and the needs of their followers.
Contextual Leadership Model was originally designed to be applied to managing a particular product. Whereas the Full-Range Model is designed to be more applicable to a military organisation where military members can be: 
'asked to perform tasks and respond to things that ordinary members of the civilian population are not expected to do.'*
The term made famous by General Sir John Hackett was that military members are subject to an implied contract of 'Unlimited Liability'.*
Unlimited Liability | Encyclopedia of Military Ethics
See also: The Profession of Arms: Officer's Call (



ARTICLE: Full Range Leadership Model: Definition & Examples (2023) (
  • Leadership styles are understood by two axes: involvement and effectiveness.
  • Developed by Avolio and Bass (1991) as a theoretical framework.
  • Styles can change over time by adapting to the company’s life cycle.
ARTICLE: Full Range Leadership
Main points:
  • Separates ineffective from effective leaders by the ability to use a full range of leadership behaviours.
  • Based on over 100 years of leadership research.
  • Identifies both transactional and transformational behaviours.
  • Transactional behaviours include laissez-faire, management-by-exception, and contingent rewards.
  • Transformational behaviours include individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence.
  • Research shows leaders who practice these four behaviours tend to gain extra employee effort.
  • Leaders also experience higher employee satisfaction, productivity, and organizational effectiveness.
ARTICLE: The Full-Range Leadership Model: A Brief Primer - Air University Download PDF
Main points:
  1. Dr Matthew Stafford developed the Full-Range Leadership Model at the Squadron Officer College in 2009.
  2. Leadership theory has existed for a long time.
  3. People have always wondered why some members of society rise to leadership positions while others do not.
  4. Historical biographies of great leaders were the earliest attempts to answer this question.
  5. These biographies served as leadership texts, allowing people to discern the characteristics and behaviors of leaders.
  6. This approach to leadership study still exists in what is often referred to as “The Great Man (or Woman) Theories.”
  7. Adherents to these theories study biographies to discern leadership traits and encourage students to adopt them.
  8. Trait-based leadership instruction is problematic because it is difficult to develop a trait.
  9. Outcomes can differ widely even when people have identical traits due to context and how leaders interact.
  10. Trait-based approach only affords an analytical tool but not necessarily a way to replicate traits consistently and successfully in students.