Undersea volcanic eruptions account for more than three-quarters of all volcanism on Earth, but rarely do we see the impacts.


  1. An exception was the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai eruption of 2022.
  2. Its explosion broke the ocean surface and punched through the stratosphere.
  3. Effects included supercharged lighting and an atmospheric shock wave.
  4. The eruption caused dramatic changes to ocean nutrient and oxygen levels.