The war between Russia and Ukraine has not unfolded as expected. Despite Russia's superior resources and manpower, Ukraine has managed to resist the invasion. The war has become a protracted conflict, reminiscent of the trench warfare of World Wars I and II.


  1. Ending war through negotiation: The article details challenges in brokering peace between Russia and Ukraine, referencing past world wars and stressing the influence of external powers like the US and China.
  2. Evolving war objectives: The piece discusses how changing war goals can hinder peace talks, illustrating World War I and the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict.
  3. Post-war transformations: The text emphasizes the significant shifts in power dynamics post-war, hinting at potential impacts on Russia and China due to the current Ukraine conflict.
  4. Rebuilding and international support: The author emphasizes post-war rebuilding challenges, the importance of magnanimity, and the crucial role of international support, drawing on the Marshall Plan and its implications for Ukraine and Russia.