The Crimean war of 1853-56 was fought by Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and prevented Russia from using Crimea to expand its empire at the expense of the Ottomans.
- The first example of a 'Modern war'.
- Newspaper reporting influenced public opinion and, therefore government.
- Russia had to return territory and agree to demilitarise the Black Sea.
- The principalities of Wallachia and Moldovia were returned to Ottoman territory and later became Romania and Moldova.
- An unexpected consequence of the Crimean war was the rise of Germany as a major European power.
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