Clausewitz's paradigm, focused on state-on-state conflict, is limited in addressing the complexities of modern insurgencies.


  1. U.S. failures in Vietnam and Afghanistan show misunderstandings of insurgency, leading to flawed conventional strategies.
  2. Insurgencies demand political-focused strategies over military might.
  3. Counterinsurgency requires understanding insurgents' goals, beyond traditional tactics.
  4. Future conflicts need strategies adapted to the political nature of insurgencies.