The author argues the main reasons for failure involve military strength, economic stability, effective governance, cultural assimilation, and adaptability.
- Avoiding ‘strategic overreach’ includes balancing wealth and the economic base with military power and strategic commitments.
- Great powers face constant tension between investment, defence, and consumption.
- Pressure from external forces is also a factor in success or collapse.
- Protecting your competitive strengths can be as important as punishing the other side.