BLUFGerman mistakes included brutality, underestimating the Soviets, and poor decisions. Soviet resilience, unity, and geography thwarted German success.
- Germans expected a swift Soviet defeat like in WWI.
- Stalin centralised control, reducing dissent.
- The Soviet Union's vastness protected its war capabilities.
- Japan didn't assist Germany against Soviet Siberia.
- Germans failed to rally anti-Bolshevik Soviet allies.