Increasing missile precision and technology is unlikely to ever completely remove human error.



  • Operation (OP) Carthage was one of the most audacious attempts at precision bombing during WW2. Despite the partial success and technical accuracy, significant civilian casualties still occurred.
  • WGCDR Damien Hare argues that despite the best planning, targeting and precision technology, the Clausewitzian concept of 'Friction in war' will always be a constant of war.
  • OP Carthage was an example of the courage and bravery of RAF Bomber Command, which suffered huge losses during WW2. Worth noting that Australians serving with Bomber Command suffered Australia’s highest casualty rates in WW2. 
  • Even the most accurate munitions rely on the human element which can, at times, lead to unintended and tragic consequences.
  • The lesson to be learned from OP Carthage is that everyone in the Air Force has a vital role to play. We need to ensure that through professionalism, dedication and duty, we can overcome as much Clausewitzian Friction as possible.